In the US, these committees usually consist of a primary supervisor or advisor and two or more committee members, who supervise the progress of the dissertation and may also act as the examining committee, or jury, at the oral examination of the thesis (see below).At most universities, the committee is chosen by the student in conjunction with his or her primary adviser, usually after completion of the comprehensive examinations or prospectus meeting, and may consist of members of the comps committee.The committee members are doctors in their field (whether a Ph D or other designation) and have the task of reading the dissertation, making suggestions for changes and improvements, and sitting in on the defense.
Most world universities use a multiple chapter format : Degree-awarding institutions often define their own house style that candidates have to follow when preparing a thesis document.
In addition to institution-specific house styles, there exist a number of field-specific, national, and international standards and recommendations for the presentation of theses, for instance ISO 7144.
Dissertations normally report on a research project or study, or an extended analysis of a topic.
The structure of a thesis or dissertation explains the purpose, the previous research literature impinging on the topic of the study, the methods used, and the findings of the project.
"A 'thesis' is a supposition of some eminent philosopher that conflicts with the general opinion..to take notice when any ordinary person expresses views contrary to men's usual opinions would be silly".
For Aristotle, a thesis would therefore be a supposition that is stated in contradiction with general opinion or express disagreement with other philosophers (104b33-35).
At Canadian universities under the French influenced system, A synthetic monograph associated with doctoral work is referred to as a "thèse". Either work can be awarded a "mention d'honneur" (excellence) as a result of the decision by the examination committee, although these are rare.
A typical undergraduate paper or essay might be forty pages.
In the Latin American docta, the academic dissertation can be referred to as different stages inside the academic program that the student is seeking to achieve into a recognized Argentine University, in all the cases the students must develop original contribution in the chosen fields by means of several paper work and essays that comprehend the body of the thesis.
Correspondingly to the academic degree, the last phase of an academic thesis is called in Spanish a defensa de grado, defensa magistral or defensa doctoral in cases in which the university candidate is finalizing his or her licentiate, master's, or Ph D program.