Recent findings in the field of cancer biology indicate that carcinogenesis is a sophisticated process, which cannot be addressed appropriately by conventional methods.
These new approaches facilitated the development of new sequencing methods as well as the establishment of computational routines for data analysis.
The molecular machineries in our cells are highly interconnected, and they act in a dynamic manner.
The activity of enzymes can be switch between the on and the off state within seconds by phosphorylation or de-phosphorylation.
Not only protein-coding sequences are relevant in this respect.
In fact, the “non-coding” DNA constitutes 98% of our genome and as such contributes to the regulatory complexity of the human DNA.
There is accumulating evidence that our genes do only partially determine our fate.
Our understanding of how our lifestyle affects human health mechanistically is still in its infancy.
Other protein modifications occur on different time scales.
The spatial arrangement of DNA and proteins in the cell nucleus depends, among other aspects, on the acetylation pattern of histone complexes, which wind up the DNA.