The microstructure of GZO thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy under metal-rich conditions on sapphire, O-rich conditions on sapphire, and metal-rich conditions on Ga N were examined using various EM techniques.
The microstructure, prevalent defects, and polarity in these films strongly depend on the growth conditions and substrate.
Polycrystalline Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) based thin-film solar cells achieve power-conversion efficiencies of almost 23% on the laboratory scale, one of the highest among thin-film solar cells.
The aim of further CIGS research and development is to reach conversion efficiencies of 25%, which is currently the efficiency of the best single-crystalline Si based solar cells.
In Ga N thin films and In Ga N / Ga N quantum wells (QW) for light emitting diodes are the second major topic.
Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Thesis Mla Essay Rules
Low-dose Z-contrast STEM, PACBED, and EDS on In Ga N QW LED structures grown by metal organic chemical vapor phase deposition show no evidence for nanoscale composition variations, contradicting previous reports.
Highest efficiencies in CIGS solar cells are achieved, when the absorber is fabricated with a three-stage co-evaporation process.
During the second stage of this process, Cu and Se are evaporated on the initially formed (In, Ga)2Se3 layer.
In the literature, two methods were suggested for this purpose: i) investigating the microstructural evolution of diffusion couples during a heating study; ii) ex-situ comparison of a growth-interrupted and a growth-finished sample.
In the first part of this study, a Cu-poor ([Cu]/([In] Auf polykristallinem Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) basierende Dünnschichtsolarzellen erreichen im Labor einen Wirkungsgrad von bis zu 23%, eine der höchsten aller Dünnschichtsolarzellen.