It should include the research question, the rationale for the study, the hypothesis (if any), the method and the main findings.
Descriptions of the method may include the design, procedures, the sample and any instruments that will be used.
An ill-conceived proposal dooms the project even if it somehow gets through the Thesis Supervisory Committee.
A high quality proposal, on the other hand, not only promises success for the project, but also impresses your Thesis Committee about your potential as a researcher.
Regardless of your research area and the methodology you choose, all research proposals must address the following questions: What you plan to accomplish, why you want to do it and how you are going to do it.
The proposal should have sufficient information to convince your readers that you have an important research idea, that you have a good grasp of the relevant literature and the major issues, and that your methodology is sound.
A research proposal is intended to convince others that you have a worthwhile research project and that you have the competence and the work-plan to complete it.
Generally, a research proposal should contain all the key elements involved in the research process and include sufficient information for the readers to evaluate the proposed study.
Unfortunately, there are no hard and fast rules on how to frame your research question just as there is no prescription on how to write an interesting and informative opening paragraph.
A lot depends on your creativity, your ability to think clearly and the depth of your understanding of problem areas.