It is often difficult to separate those aspects pertaining to the middle grades from studies that include the early elementary grades (K-3) and/or secondary school grades (9-12). In our review of research and practices in the schools, we found considerable overlap among these topics.
When appropriate, we have indicated where issues under one topic are related to the other two.
This summary review was prepared from the larger literature review prepared as one of the major tasks of this study (Rutherford, Billig & Kettering, 1993).
Additionally, we conducted another search of the literature since 1993 and source materials from this search are included here.
Rather, try organizing the literature review into sections that present themes or identify trends, including relevant theories.
You are not trying to list all the material published on a topic, but to synthesize and evaluate it according to the guiding concept of your thesis or research question.Such comprehensive programs might use innovative methods of communicating with parents on various educational and child development issues; on recruiting community members as volunteers in new, meaningful ways; and on developing other ways to make the programs attractive to different kinds of parents and community members.Collaboration with businesses and community service agencies such as flextime for school conferences or other school-related activities may also be considered. At the building level, schools may change their practices and structure in significant ways to encourage more parent involvement with emphasis on school initiated activities to promote contacts with all parents. Parents can extend their children's school learning through home activities such as reading; assisting with homework; encouraging family games, activities, and discussions; and improving their own parenting skills.Chapter 5 draws conclusions, discusses implications, and recommends directions for future research direction.an annotated bibliography in which you summarize briefly each article that you have reviewed.The conceptualization of parent and community involvement programs in Chapter 3 of this review involves the roles of parents and families (well established in research and practice), and community members (emerging as an important field of study) as they are facilitated in schools and school districts.In 1991 the United States Department of Education commissioned twelve studies of different aspects of national educational reform.The initial literature review of the current state-of-the-art served two primary purposes: To assist researchers in the refinement of the plan for further research and as part of Studies of Education Reform: Parent and Community Involvement in Education, this review -- in combination with information gained through commissioned papers and a national conference -- provided the basis for fieldwork.To inform practitioners, policymakers, and other interested parties of the current state-of-the-art in parent and community involvement programs (where available, the review focuses on middle grade populations).This summary review of the literature synthesizes the current state-of-the-art in parent and community involvement; looks at the programs, practices, and their effects in the research and practice literature, especially since 1980; and ends with implications, conclusions and recommendations for research.The literature on middle grade (i.e., Grades 4 through 8) parent and community involvement programs and practices is highlighted throughout this review since activities in the middle grades are less well-developed and understood than those for earlier grades.