The idea of building humans and machines with intelligence transferred from mythology into modern literature. However, people not only wrote about the possibility of creating intelligent machines; they actually built them. Homer’s Iliad, a remarkable literature work from ancient Greece, narrates how the Greek god Hephaestos creates Talos, a man of bronze whose duty is to patrol and protect the beaches of Crete. And, in the 1940s, Isaac Asimov started publishing his famous collection of books about robotics.Both a symbolic approach (i.e., an approach that uses symbols and rules) and a subsymbolic approach (i.e., an approach that does not use rules but learns by itself) to AI coexisted with many successes.
Machines Cannot Have Understanding—The Chinese Room Argument VI. Bibliography Artificial intelligence (AI) comprises a vast interdisciplinary field, which has benefited from its beginning from disciplines such as computer science, psychology, philosophy, neuroscience, mathematics, engineering, linguistics, economics, education, biology, control theory, and cybernetics.This two-month workshop was organized by John Mc Carthy, Marvin Minsky, Claude Shannon, and Nathaniel Rochester and included as participants Trenchard More from Princeton, Arthur Samuel from IBM, Ray Solomonoff and Oliver Selfridge from MIT, and Allen Newell and Herbert Simon from Carnegie Tech, all of whom played fundamental roles in the development of AI.The Dartmouth workshop is considered the official birthplace of AI as a field, and it provided significant advances from previous work. For example, around 2500 BCE in Egypt, citizens and peregrines turned to oracles (statues with priests hidden inside) for advice. (Rossum’s Universal Robots), which opened in London in 1923, coined the word “robot.” Shortly after, the very popular science fiction movie Metropolis, by Fritz Lang (1927), had a robot character (Maria) that played a decisive role in the plot of the movie. It seems that the desire to build machines that behave intelligently has always been a part of human history. Toward the end of the Middle Ages, clockmakers helped build devices that tried to mimic human and animal behavior. Supposedly, in one test, it flew a distance of 200 meters (however, once it fell to the ground, it could not take off again).These books demonstrated that complex networks could resolve the logical problems (e.g., X‑OR) that early perceptrons could not resolve, and allowed networks to resolve many new problems.This new impulse of AI research resulted in the development of new approaches to AI during the late 1980s and 1990s, such as the subsymbolic approaches of evolutionary computing with evolutionary programming and genetic algorithms, behavior-based robotics, artificial life, and the development of the symbolic Bayesian networks. He also created an automatic duck (The Digesting Duck) that could drink, eat, paddle in water, and digest and excrete eaten grain. In the 18th century, Jacques de Vaucanson created a mechanical life-size figure (The Flute Player) capable of playing a flute with a repertoire of 12 different tunes.