Non Random Assignment

Instead, they must assess the differences at baseline and account for any demographic or behavioral differences in the analysis.

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Pre-Test/Post-Test with Non-Random Assignment to Intervention or Control Groups.

As with randomized experiments, for a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design, data are collected before and after the intervention.

In the appeal, Motorola claims that the Seventh Circuit is on the wrong side of a circuit split over the Foreign Trade Antitrust Improvements Act, but—perhaps more interestingly—has asked the Supreme Court to overturn the Seventh Circuit’s allowance of non-random case assignments.

Recently, the Seventh Circuit has garnered headlines for its practice of allowing a motions panel to retain a case for a decision on the merits, sometimes even without briefing and argument.

Although the independent variable is manipulated, participants are not randomly assigned to conditions or orders of conditions (Cook & Campbell, 1979) Because the independent variable is manipulated before the dependent variable is measured, quasi-experimental research eliminates the directionality problem.

But because participants are not randomly assigned—making it likely that there are other differences between conditions—quasi-experimental research does not eliminate the problem of confounding variables.Notably, post-test only designs can also be used for experimental designs, assuming that the groups are randomly assigned before the intervention began.Randomization ensures that the intervention and comparison groups are equivalent with respect to all factors other than whether they received the intervention.Evaluators choose to use non-experimental designs when there are resource constraints, when they are unable to form an appropriate comparison group, or when a program covers the entire population and thus there is no comparison group, such as with a mass media campaign.In non-experimental study designs, evaluators must have a clear conceptual understanding of how the intervention was intended to influence the health outcomes of interest.When randomization of subjects or groups is neither practical nor feasible, a quasi-experimental design can approximate the randomized experiment.Quasi-experimental designs use an intervention and comparison group, but assignment to the groups is nonrandom.The non-experimental design is an intervention group only and lacks a comparison/control group, making it the weakest study design.Without a comparison group, it is difficult for evaluators to determine what would have happened in the absence of the intervention.In fact, Motorola alleges, “Seventh Circuit judges hearing applications to permit an interlocutory review regularly assign to themselves the merits of cases they find particularly significant and interesting, rather than leaving the case to the ordinary random assignment process.” Judges Posner and Easterbrook both received personal criticism from Motorola, which specifically claims that “it is common for Judge Posner [on a motions panel] to decide antitrust cases on the merits without further briefing or argument.” In its petition, Motorola noted that the Seventh Circuit’s practice under its internal rules of allowing motions panels to retain cases is “unique among the circuits.” At least with respect to the Sixth Circuit, the Seventh Circuit’s practice is different.The Sixth Circuit’s internal operating procedures are designed to ensure transparency of panel assignment (borne in the aftermath of some prominent disputes about this well over a decade ago).

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