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Loyalty is a matter of the heart and mind, not of race, creed, or color.
He who is loyal is, by definition, not a spy or a saboteur.” The Court found that as a loyal citizen, Endo was entitled to unconditional release from the internment camp.
The irony was not lost on the interned, who had been forced behind wire fences based on racialized notions of ancestry and disloyalty—in other words, suspected as persons incapable of ever fully becoming Americans—and then were asked to fight for the U. On February 1, 1943, President Roosevelt announced his decision to let Japanese Americans enlist, and more than 26,000 served in the U. 21, ordering the internment camps to be closed and all remaining Japanese Americans to be released.
The very next day—December 18, 1944—the Supreme Court released its Korematsu decision, upholding the constitutionality of the government’s internment policy and affirming the conviction of Fred Korematsu, 23-year-old Japanese American welder from San Leandro, California who had defied the government order to move to an internment camp. On the same day, the Court also released its decision on another lesser-known but arguably more important case dealing with internment: Ex Parte Endo. Nonetheless she’d been subjected to the extreme discrimination all Japanese Americans were made to endure at the time, and had been forced into an internment camp.Just after his election in November, the press and internet exploded with news that his transition team was seriously considering a Muslim registry.Then, members of his camp began to cite Japanese internment as precedent for a Muslim registry.Welcome to the Tisch Library guide for the history of the Japanese-American Internment.Use the table of contents to find definitions, topic overviews, books, articles, and more that will help you with your research.It has never been clear to me why the case of Endo—the case which legally brought the internment camps to a close—has been so overshadowed by Korematsu.But if we are to call upon history to help us make decisions today, we need to look at the whole picture, and not rely upon selective memories.In 1988, President Ronald Reagan signed the Civil Liberties Act, issuing an apology and compensation as redress for the wrongful internment of Japanese Americans.And in 2011, the Department of Justice—finally—officially conceded that it committed grave error in the Korematsu case 67 years prior when the government submitted false and incomplete evidence, and suppressed the fact that FBI and military investigations refuted claims of Japanese American disloyalty.By now, it is evident that the internment of 120,000 Japanese Americans—three-quarters of whom were U. citizens, the rest immigrants who were not permitted to become citizens, and all of whom were interned without due process—was based on fear, panic, and racism.Korematsu is widely acknowledged as a civil rights disaster.