The most common topics covered in the alternative to practical exams are: coasts, rivers, settlement and weather (so make sure you’ve revised the theory on these sections.
Beach profile is measured to survey the morphology (structure/elevation) of a beach and compare that to other beaches or coastlines, as well as examining correlation between beach processes and sediments.
GEOGRAPHY IGCSE: ALTERNATIVE PAPER 4 - INVESTIGATING.
It contains: formulating aims and hypotheses, enquiry skills to collect data, questionnaires, observation, counts, measurements, river measurement and beach studies, data presentation techniques, analysis, formation of conclusions.
Discharge (m³): cross-sectional area (m²) x velocity (m/s) Discharge normally increases downstream, as do width, depth and velocity.
Channel efficiency (measured by hydraulic radius): cross-sectional area/ wetted perimeter.(the same method for sediment analysis applies to rivers) Width and depth: Channel width can be measured by holding a tape measure across the channel from bank to bank.The wetted width is the channel width at water level, while bankful width refers to the distance from bank to bank.This page summarises the main skills that you will need to learn to triumph in the exam hall.Many students lose points because they overlook some of the questions (has happened to me as well).This is best done at low tide and during stable weather conditions to ensure the safety of the surveyors.Sediments size and structure may be recorded along different coast lines to investigate transport and erosion processes and the relationship between sediments and other factors such as beach profile.Environmental surveys may be used to track pollution at a variety of sites.A scoring system would be devised to rate the intensity and impact of litter, noise and traffic on the surrounding area.A tape measure is used to measure medium distances (between several metres to 30/50 metres).[the yellow thing used for measuring the distance in long jump] A metre rule is used for measuring short distances eg. Calipers are used to measure the width, length or height of small objects.