and expert testimony likening defendant's modus operandi to typical drug money laundering operation.the laundering offence in section 49(1) of the dta 1994 applies to a person who launders the proceeds of "his" drug trafficking.Moreover; prosecutorial agencies attempt to fit digital currency exchangers under the regulations pertinent to money service businesses (MSB) (Mandjee, 2015; Sonderegger, 2015).
This project revealed a need for a clear definition of bitcoin and digital currency within the context of U. laws and regulation to assist with investigations concerning illicit uses of digital currency. Research revealed that digital currency regulations should mirror MSB regulations to curb peer-to-peer digital currency exchanges (Kirby, 2014).
Additionally, Fin CENs purview with financial crimes provides a unique position to assist law enforcement with digital currency investigations (Fin CEN, 2014).
legal frameworks 1) international regime (1) the vienna convention (2) the money laundering convention 2) domestic regime (1) the uk (2) the us 4..
measures to control money laundering have been grouped into the categories of repression and prevention..
In response to these threats, agencies have issued various opinions regarding defining digital currencies within a financial framework.
Regulator opinions concerning the applicability of bitcoins existing as currency, property, a commodity and commodity money contradict each other.
california state university, long beach, proquest dissertations publishingpublication date: 2005money laundering has been a plague in many nations around the world.
one of the grounds that would make the requested state unable to provide confiscation assistance, although it is not explicitly provided in either the vienna or the money laundering conventions, is where doing so would engage the requested state in a violation of the legality principle.
The advent of digital currencies revealed problems concerning anonymity embedded in bitcoins, consequently raising money laundering concerns.
Regulators and law enforcement agencies struggle with addressing the money laundering issues inherent with bitcoin and digital currencies (Ajello, 2025).