She says that these studies acknowledge that the differences are most apparent at the upper levels of the math section of the SAT.
They also recognize that the SAT is only taken by the subset of the population; college bound juniors and seniors.
Also, she says the use of high school students has created trends in verbal and spatial tests that are "artifacts caused by changing composition of the high school population." Finally, Halpern says that the questions asked on these types of tests don't assess the areas in which gender differences are found (Halpern, 1989).
Halpern says that there are changes in the high school population not considered by earlier studies.
Diane Halpern has spent much of her career working on gender differences in cognitive ability and education.
She has done much work on the assessment of educational outcomes, individual differences in cognition, and the development of critical thinking.She is also a faculty member for the on-line learning site Psychplace and was president of the Western Psychological Association.In 1997 she was awarded APA's Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training award (Halpern, 1998).Halpern has also had a lot of success in her career.In 1994 she was awarded a Fulbright to Moscow University in Russia where she was the first American to teach classes in psychology.She started out as an engineering major but switched after she took an introductory class in psychology.That class made her realize that psychology was addressing all of the important topics in life.This article is expected to have a major effect on the way academic departments of psychology evaluate research (Halpern, 1998).Her interest in teaching can be seen in the professional activities she participates in and awards she has received.She does not agree with the findings on verbal ability either for three reasons.One is that reliance on samples of high school students to address the issue has resulted in underestimating the female superiority in verbal abilities.