Tags: Doctoral Thesis On LeadershipWhat Would I Do If I Had A Million Dollars EssayPlanning In A BusinessArgumentative Essay On Dependence On TechnologyThesis RecruitmentFamous Essayist And Their WorksMichelle Obama Doctorate ThesisEssay On Owning A House Or Renting OneCase Studies Nursing Delegation
Figure 16.2 shows the relationship between trade reforms and a set of food security indicators, and lists examples of the key modifying parameters.Columns 1, 3 and 5 depict an elaboration of the simple causal relationship from Figure 16.1.
· What is the best way of promoting competition in agriculture?
Is improved competition in input provision essential?
In other words, the effective route will be context specific.
In order to conceptualize the context specificity of the implications of economic reforms on food security, a framework is proposed in which the impact on food security is described as a two stage process, the strength and extent of which is determined by a set of parameters.
Does this vary depending on the commodity in question?
· What has been the role of government in improving market access, or protecting small farmers against exclusion? In particular, what alternative arrangements have replaced the activities of agricultural parastatals?This impact will often be greater than that of agricultural trade liberalization alone.Parameters modifying the degree of price transmission and supply response The second column reflects the factors that may influence the impact of economic reforms.Figure 16.1 A simple analytical framework for linking trade reforms and food security , the agro-climatic constraints, and the level of physical and human capital which will all influence the extent to which reform will cause a change in the intermediate indicators.In addition, even if increases in aggregate agricultural production and net incomes do result from such reforms, it does not necessarily follow that the level of food security of the insecure will rise, especially if the distribution of the benefits associated with increased agricultural production is not in their favour, or the potential impacts of changes in agricultural production levels are offset, or indeed swamped, by changes elsewhere in the economy.In the remaining sections of this chapter, the components of the framework depicted in Figure 16.1 are first discussed in more detail at a conceptual level, before focusing in on the two sets of modifying parameters, where the discussion revolves around the types of questions that researchers might ask in interpreting the strength of the relationship.In the following chapter, methodological guidelines are developed with a view to explaining how the conceptual framework might be operationalized in practice.· Is there differential access to markets for those engaged in the production of key cash crops as opposed to food crops?· Has market access for different categories of agricultural producers improved or deteriorated as a result of trade reforms?It differs, however, by focusing on agriculture-related reforms and food security, and adopting a case-study methodology designed to capture more completely the micro-level factors that influence the direction and strength of the relationship.In the conceptual framework described below, greater emphasis is placed on the diversity of country positions with respect to trade and food security, and to both the regional differences and the diversity of household types within and between countries.