A fuller account of EROI in electricity generation is in the information paper on Energy Return on Investment.
Wind turbines have developed greatly in recent decades, solar photovoltaic technology is much more efficient, and there are improved prospects of harnessing the energy in tides and waves.
Solar thermal technologies in particular (with some heat storage) have great potential in sunny climates.
Such policies, now in place in about 50 countries, include priority dispatch for electricity from renewable sources and special feed-in tariffs, quota obligations and energy tax exemptions.
In 2015 over 140 countries submitted to the UN’s Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) secretariat their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to combat climate change.