These include organisms in the microbial mat, free floating cells, or bacteria in an endosymbiotic relationship with animals.
Chemolithoautotrophic bacteria derive nutrients and energy from the geological activity at Hydrothermal vents to fix carbon into organic forms.
The approximate rate of pressure increase in the ocean is 10Mega-pascals (MPa) for every kilometre that is traveled towards the seafloor.
This means that hydrostatic pressure can reach up to 110MPa at the depths of the trenches.
Microbial communities at hydrothermal vents mediate the transformation of energy and minerals produced by geological activity into organic material.
Organic matter produced by autotrophic bacteria is then used to support the upper trophic levels.
These organisms also provide the foundation for further development of the ecosystem as they are hunted by larger creatures.
The Hydrothermal vent microbial community encompasses all unicellular organisms that live and reproduce in a chemically distinct area around Hydrothermal vents.
This allows water from the ocean to enter into the crust of the earth where it is heated by the magma.
The increasing pressure and temperature forces the water back out of these openings, on the way out, the water accumulates dissolved minerals and chemicals from the rocks that it encounters.