Several studies used the “delinquency” or “externalizing” subscales of the Child-Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) to measure antisocial behaviour. found higher levels of free testosterone in a group of high externalizing male subjects compared to a group of low externalizing male participants. used the Youth Self-Report (YSR) delinquency subscale and the Risky Behaviour Scale (RBS) to report positive correlations between free testosterone and antisocial behaviour in male subjects.
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are responsible for regulating stress responses.
Animal models have been used to evaluate the effect of stress on antisocial behaviour. showed that rats with low levels of corticosterone (CORT) exhibit highly aggressive behaviour in a non-resident intruder fighting situation.
Decreased PFC activity was shown in antisocial criminals when compared to healthy controls.
To summarize, it is clear that hypofunctioning of the PFC contributes to the development of antisocial behaviour in criminals.