A case study is an in-depth study of a particular research problem rather than a sweeping statistical survey or comprehesive comparative inquiry. It uses secondary sources and a variety of primary documentary evidence, such as, diaries, official records, reports, archives, and non-textual information [maps, pictures, audio and visual recordings].It is often used to narrow down a very broad field of research into one or a few easily researchable examples. A blueprint of the procedure that enables the researcher to maintain control over all factors that may affect the result of an experiment. The limitation is that the sources must be both authentic and valid.
Also included is a collection of case studies of social research projects that can be used to help you better understand abstract or complex methodological concepts.Cohorts can be either "open" or "closed."Cross-sectional research designs have three distinctive features: no time dimension; a reliance on existing differences rather than change following intervention; and, groups are selected based on existing differences rather than random allocation. The main objectives of meta-analysis include analyzing differences in the results among studies and increasing the precision by which effects are estimated.The cross-sectional design can only measure differences between or from among a variety of people, subjects, or phenomena rather than a process of change. A well-designed meta-analysis depends upon strict adherence to the criteria used for selecting studies and the availability of information in each study to properly analyze their findings.Causality studies may be thought of as understanding a phenomenon in terms of conditional statements in the form, “If X, then Y.” This type of research is used to measure what impact a specific change will have on existing norms and assumptions. The classic experimental design specifies an experimental group and a control group. Longitudinal research designs describe patterns of change and help establish the direction and magnitude of causal relationships.Most social scientists seek causal explanations that reflect tests of hypotheses. The independent variable is administered to the experimental group and not to the control group, and both groups are measured on the same dependent variable. Measurements are taken on each variable over two or more distinct time periods.Due to the required time commitment and workload, these types of reviews are often conducted as a group project. Research is the careful study of a given field or problem in order to discover new facts or principles. What is the difference between Action Research and Case Study?In social sciences research, obtaining information relevant to the research problem generally entails specifying the type of evidence needed to test a theory, to evaluate a program, or to accurately describe and assess meaning related to an observable phenomenon.With this in mind, a common mistake made by researchers is that they begin their investigations far too early, before they have thought critically about what information is required to address the research problem.The The essentials of action research design follow a characteristic cycle whereby initially an exploratory stance is adopted, where an understanding of a problem is developed and plans are made for some form of interventionary strategy.Then the intervention is carried out [the "action" in action research] during which time, pertinent observations are collected in various forms.