Staupitz called upon Luther to succeed him as the university's professor of the Bible, a post he held for the rest of his life.
In preparation for his university lectures in 1513, especially on the letters of Paul, Luther resolved his turmoil.
Upon his return he completed the work for his theological doctorate and became a professor at Wittenberg.
This period was the beginning of the intimacy between Luther and John von Staupitz, whose influence led Luther to say in 1531, "I have received everything from Staupitz." For Luther these years were times of profound spiritual and physical torment.
Indulgences were the commutation for money of part of the temporal penalty due for sin—i.e., the practical satisfaction that was a part of the sacrament of penance.
They were granted on papal authority and made available through accredited agents.A counterthesis was prepared by a Dominican theologian and defended before a Dominican audience at Frankfurt in January 1518.When Luther realized the extensive interest his tentative theses had aroused, he prepared a long Latin manuscript with explanations of his Ninety-five Theses, published in the autumn of 1518.Ordinarily, Luther’s theses would have been of interest only to professional theologians, but various political and religious situations of the time, and the fact that printing had been invented, combined to make the theses known throughout Germany within a few weeks.Luther did not give them to the people, although he did send copies to the Archbishop of Mainz and to the Bishop of Brandenburg.The fact was emphasized that money was being collected from poor people and sent to the rich papacy in Rome, a point popular with the Germans, who had long resented the money they were forced to contribute to Rome.Subsequently, the Archbishop of Mainz, alarmed and annoyed, forwarded the documents to Rome in December 1517, with the request that Luther be inhibited.There, devoutly attentive to the rigid discipline of the order, he began an intensive study of Scripture and was ordained a priest in 1507. of Wittenberg to study and to lecture on Aristotle.In 1510, Luther was sent to Rome on business for his order, and there he was shocked by the spiritual laxity apparent in high ecclesiastical places.The sale of this indulgence was forbidden in Wittenberg by the elector Frederick III the Wise, who preferred that the faithful should make their offerings at his own great collection of relics, exhibited in the Church of All Saints.Nevertheless, Wittenberg church members went to Tetzel, who was preaching nearby, and they showed the pardons for their sins received from him to Luther.